Property:HistoryNote

From Multilingual Bookbinding Dictionary
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Showing 18 pages using this property.
A
It has been applied in various modified forms in succeeding styles of architecture. In bookbinding, the acanthus ornamentation is a typical impression of the finishing tool cut to represent two such leaves pointing in different directions. The acanthus decoration was also used as a decorative motif by illuminators of manuscripts, especially Carolingian artists of the 9th century.  +
B
The use of the ticket gave way to the practice by binders of lettering their names in gilt, blind, or ink, usually on the bottom turn-in of either upper or lower board. This record was sometimes referred to as a '''"name pallet."''' A variation of the ticket, usually printed, was used by some edition binders during the 19th century, and was usually located on the inside tail edge of the lower cover."  +
The covers of many 19th century publisher's bindings were decorated by blocking.  +
A small blocking press is known as an arming press."The arming press was, as its name implies, originally used for stamping coats of arms on the sides of leather-bound volumes. In its simplest form the process was as follows: The gold leaf was laid on the book cover in the appropriate place. The engraved block was heated and set in position on the book itself. Pressure was then applied by means of a screw-down press. Not only was the process slow, but a considerable degree of skill was necessary. Not the least of Leighton's difficulties must have been that the trade of ab lcoker had barely been thought of. No doubt the screw type of press had already been superseded by 1832, but the scanty evidence available leads me to believe that the arming press called the Imperial was introduced in that very year. This press was worked on a principle similar to that of the Imperial printing press, with a pull-over arm and rods for the application of the pressure. Heat was applied through a heater box, to which the engraved block was screwed, and was maintained by the insertion of irons supplied from a brazier at the workman's side. There was a bed with gauges for the accurate reception of the work."  +
Cloth as a covering material for books is said to have been introduced, in England, by William Pickering, possibly as early as 1821-23, although books bound in burlap go back to the 1760s. Pickering's cloth was calico, a soft clothing material which disintegrated in the presence of glue unless it was lined with paper.ARCHIBALD LEIGHTON is generally credited with being the first to introduce a really durable cloth for covering books. The first true book cloth was a dyed and glazed calico, prepared with a starch filler to make it resistant to the moisture in glue. The first cloth had little character and was aesthetically unpleasant. It was also without natural texture and the threads gave it a somewhat raw and unfinished appearance. What was needed was some sort of decoration which would make the threads less obvious. When this came about, it took the form of embossed grains worked on the material, either in the roll or piece. One of the earliest designs, introduced in 1831, was a water finish, which may have been an outgrowth of the watered silk patterns that were introduced in 1828; it was used only for a short period because of its high cost and poor durability. See also:CLOTH GRAINING . For several years following the introduction of cloth, it was the usual practice of binders to buy the cloth in its basic white color, and then have it dyed, filled, and otherwise prepared for use, or to dye and finish it themselves. Embossing was done at first by means of ribbon embossers, but this was expensive, and the larger binderies did their own embossing by means of manually operated, heated rollers. By the 1840s, however, the complete manufacture of finished book cloth had become a separate business. Notwithstanding its obvious advantages, it was not until the middle of the 19th century that cloth largely replaced paper in regular edition binding. The rapid increase in the use of cloth was largely due to the successful methods that were developed of blocking in gold on cloth-covered cases. It was then possible to give cloth bindings a finished appearance which enabled them to be compared favorably with hand-tooled leather and, therefore, acceptable as a permanent binding.  
C
en:The style was common on the Continent and especially in England from about 1580 to 1620.  +
F
It is not known when the fillet first came into use. Bindings of the 12th century, and even earlier, have impressed lines that could have been made with a fillet, but they may also have been impressed with a pallet, or similar tool, dragged across the leather rather than rolled. It is argued that it probably did not precede the roll, which was introduced in about 1470. by any great length of time, because once a wheel-type tool was introduced, it would soon be patterned. It is sometimes called a "roulette" in the United States.  +
I
en:Used in relationship to [[edge gilding]] and [[trimming]]  +
M
"Book-sewing machines are of two kinds: one sews the books on bands, either flat or round, and the other supplies the place of bands by a kind of chain stitch. The band-working machines bring the return thread back by pulling it through the upper and lower edges of the back of each section, there-by to some extent weakening each section, but at the same time this weakening can be to some extent neutralized by careful head-banding. The other system, where the band is replaced by a chainstitch, brings back the return thread inside each section; the objection to this is that there is a flattening out of the back of the book, which becomes a difficulty when the subsequent operation of covering the book begins. The sections are sewn continuously in a long line, and are afterwards cut apart. The threads catch into hooked needles and are drawn through holes made by piercers set to a certain distance; a shuttle like that used in an ordinary sewing-machine."  +
By long usage, the term "morocco" is taken to denote a goatskin, tanned by any vegetable tannage, and boarded in the wet condition; in a more strict interpretation, however, morocco is defined as a goatskin tanned exclusively with SUMAC , and boarded in the wet condition. Leather made from vegetable tanned goatskin having a grain pattern resembling that of genuine morocco, but produced other than by hand boarding, is more properly termed "morocco grained goat" or "assisted morocco. "  +
N
The nonpareil marble represents a revival of the early comb pattern. It came into use in about 1838 and was used throughout the middle of the 19th century for endpapers and later for cover papers on all classes of stationery bindings. It was also used for edge marbling from about 1840 to the 1920s when edge marbling virtually went out of existence. Nonpareil marbles were less artistic than the earlier combs, and, although executed by hand, suffered from a sort of mechanical appearance.@en  +
P
Paste has many uses in bookbinding, although its use is declining in favor of the increased use of cold resinous adhesives, such as polyvinyl acetate. It is still used, however, in covering, for pasting down endpapers, and in casing-in, etc. It is also used for decorative work (see: [[paste paper]]), in repairing torn leaves, and the like. In paper conservation, rice starch and wheat starch pastes are used for hinging, lining, and in long-fiber repairs.@en  +
en:Alternate spelling, but same meaning as "plough".  +
R
The practice of rounding the spines of books dates back to at least the middle of the 15th century, and, during the course of years, the "proper" shape of the round has ranged from a nearly flat spine to a highly exaggerated arc.@en  +
S
It is not known for certain if standing presses existed in binderies before the end of the 15th century; however, as the use of paper in bookmaking had become more widespread by this time, resulting in increased production of books, the importance of a large press capable of simultaneously pressing a number of books may have become apparent. In addition, a heavy press was needed because the paper of that time was bulky and spongy as compared with parchment. The form of the early standing press, with its single screw and descending platen, changed very little until the introduction of the hydraulic press.  +
T
During the years before edition binding and publisher’s cloth – the whole period, that is, between Johann Gutenberg, 1450, and William Pickering, 1823 – books were normally issued to the public, across the counter, in alternative dress and at alternative prices; unbound, in folded quires (latterly stitched and with the intentionally temporary protection of wrappers or paper-covered boards) for binding to the purchaser’s taste, at his order and expense, as on the Continent to this day, or at a higher price in some usually simple binding put on by or for the bookseller.  +
Tying up, which represented the first effort to mold the leather around the raised bands, was first used in the early 13th century. The technique seems to coincide more or less with the first use of the groove method of attaching boards. Virtually all books sewn on raised cords were "tied up" until early in the 19th century. Although [[band nippers]] are now used in lieu of tying up, the practice is still employed in the restoration of pre-19th century rare books, primarily to give the appearance of the binding technique of the times.That tying up declined after the early 19th century was probably due to several factors, including: 1) leather in trade binding was replaced by cloth; 2) sewing on raised cords itself declined; and 3) standards of finishing in fine binding were improving and neater work could be done without the use of cords and, in any event, tying up was unnecessary if the leather was properly prepared and drawn on. Large books were (and still are) tied up, especially when the covering leather is intractable. e.g., pigskin.  +
W
This method of "sewing," which originated in Germany in about 1880, while strong, fell into disuse because of the development of edition (thread) sewing machines, and also because the staples rusted and disintegrated and the books came apart.  +